By Nina Montes de Oca
The discovery of the Camisea gas fields and their exploitation since 2004 have led to a profound restructuring of the energy sector in Peru. Despite its commitment to the fight against climate change, which is considerably affecting the country, the Peruvian government has chosen to engage in an energy transition that prioritises natural gas. This article uses the Peruvian case to discuss the contradictions inherent in energy transitions in the South. It analyzes the discordance between institutional, social and private interests in the development of the gas network of which the flagship project is the Southern Peruvian Gas Pipeline, implemented as a solution to the unequal structuring of the Peruvian energy system and to the claims of the country’s southern regions. Using a geographical approach based on empirical data and analysis of the literature related to this project, the article highlights the incentives and disincentives for the deployment of the residential gas network in the city of Arequipa.